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Hours of productive employment 

To a large extent, how hard one works is influenced by the cultural environment.  Countries that value labor, like the United States, tend to have significantly more hours worked than countries in Europe that are more focused on leisure, and view work as a necessary evil, rather than something that is glorified. (The average work week in the US is about 35 hours per week, while in Germany, Norway and the Netherlands it is 27 hours per week.) But the place that really cranks out the work is South Korea, with a world leading average work week of 44 hours per week.  Surprisingly enough, Greece, known for its Mediterranean lifestyle and indulgent socialist government, is one of the hardest working labor forces in the world, with an average work week of 41 hours.

Of course, there are many factors that affect how hard and much people work. In addition to cultural factors, there is the issue of stage of economic development.  Some people in poorer countries may have to work very hard simply to survive, while those in richer countries may be able to maintain a nice lifestyle with fewer hours of work.  In many developing countries with high levels of unemployment and underemployment, work may simply not be available, so the amount of labor is not a choice. Taxation policies and labor laws have a huge impact on hours worked. In some European countries, you can make almost as much money from unemployment benefits and other entitlements as you can working. And work hours change over time; as society has transitioned from a mostly agricultural labor force to a mostly urbanized one, working hours have decreased.  Men tend to work from one to four hours more per week than women, even in the same job.

Of course, there are major distinctions among hours worked within professions; some of these are not surprising at all; lawyers, managers, salespeople, farm workers, all work long hours. However, the hardest working profession from our chart below is actually clergy, with an average work week of 52 hours (they dont get Sunday s off.)

 

Hours Worked:

Three important sources of international labor statistics are the International Labor Office (ILO), the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), and the Statistical Office of the European Communities (EUROSTAT).

The ILO’s Bureau of Statistics provides data for the greatest number of countries in the ILO’s Yearbook of Labor Statistics (LABORSTA), Key Indicators of the Labor Market (KILM), and numerous other databases. The OECD provides data primarily for the developed countries, while most EUROSTAT data are limited to the countries of the European Union. All of these organizations prepare special studies on a wide variety of labor-related topics.

Source: Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)(http://stats.oecd.org/Index.aspx?DatasetCode=ANHRS)

Data extracted on 12 Feb 2010 06:08 UTC (GMT) from OECD.Stat

 

 

 

 

 

Average annual hours actually worked per worker 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Country

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

Korea

2 520

2 506

2 465

2 434

2 404

2 364

2 357

2 316

..

Greece

2 121

2 123

2 106

2 116

2 064

2 081

2 150

2 122

2 120

Hungary

2 061

2 019

2 027

1 998

1 998

1 997

1 993

1 988

1 988

Czech Republic

2 092

2 000

1 980

1 972

1 986

2 002

1 997

1 985

1 992

Poland

1 988

1 974

1 979

1 984

1 983

1 994

1 985

1 976

1 969

Mexico

1 888

1 864

1 888

1 857

1 849

1 909

1 883

1 871

1 893

Italy

1 861

1 843

1 831

1 826

1 826

1 819

1 815

1 817

1 802

Iceland

1 885

1 847

1 812

1 807

1 810

1 794

1 795

1 807

1 807

United States

1 836

1 814

1 810

1 800

1 802

1 800

1 801

1 798

1 792

Japan

1 821

1 809

1 798

1 799

1 787

1 775

1 784

1 785

1 772

Slovak Republic

1 815

1 790

1 733

1 678

1 733

1 768

1 773

1 776

1 769

New Zealand

1 830

1 817

1 817

1 813

1 827

1 810

1 787

1 771

1 753

OECD countries

1 812

1 796

1 787

1 778

1 777

1 776

1 774

1 770

1 766

Canada

1 768

1 762

1 744

1 734

1 752

1 738

1 738

1 735

1 727

Portugal

1 765

1 769

1 767

1 742

1 763

1 752

1 757

1 727

1 745

Australia

1 785

1 749

1 736

1 734

1 740

1 727

1 717

1 717

1 721

Finland

1 750

1 734

1 728

1 720

1 724

1 718

1 714

1 710

1 728

United Kingdom

1 712

1 715

1 696

1 677

1 672

1 676

1 671

1 673

1 653

Switzerland

1 688

1 650

1 630

1 643

1 673

1 667

1 652

1 643

1 643

Spain

1 731

1 727

1 721

1 706

1 690

1 668

1 653

1 635

1 627

Ireland

1 719

1 713

1 698

1 671

1 668

1 654

1 642

1 631

1 601

Austria

1 658

1 657

1 652

1 658

1 663

1 652

1 644

1 630

1 631

Sweden

1 642

1 618

1 595

1 582

1 605

1 605

1 599

1 615

1 625

Denmark

1 581

1 587

1 579

1 577

1 579

1 579

1 585

1 599

1 610

Belgium

1 545

1 577

1 580

1 575

1 549

1 565

1 566

1 560

1 568

France

1 591

1 579

1 537

1 533

1 561

1 559

1 536

1 553

1 542

Luxembourg

1 662

1 646

1 635

1 630

1 586

1 570

1 580

1 515

1 555

Germany

1 473

1 458

1 445

1 439

1 442

1 434

1 432

1 433

1 432

West Germany

1 451

1 439

1 428

1 422

1 426

1 419

1 417

1 421

1 421

Norway

1 455

1 429

1 414

1 399

1 417

1 420

1 414

1 417

1 422

Netherlands

1 374

1 373

1 348

1 363

1 362

1 375

1 389

1 390

1 389

Turkey

1 937

1 942

1 943

1 943

1 918

..

..

..

..

Note: OECD study is the authoritative source for this issue, above data is the latest from the OECD study

Data gathered from U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics Division of Information Services following report

October 1998, Vol. 121, No. 10

How hours of work affect occupational earnings

Daniel Hecker

Abstract:

Analysis of long-term trends in hours of work has shown that a large proportion of full-timers in some major occupational groups put in long hours, and that persons working long hours generally have higher earnings.1 Do the high earnings associated with longer workweeks simply reflect the greater number of hours worked, or is there a more basic difference between jobs that demand (or encourage) long workweeks and those that do not? In an article in the April 1997 issue of the Review, BLS analysts Philip L. Rones, Jennifer Gardner, and Randy E. Ilg noted that professional and managerial workers had both higher earnings and longer hours than did workers in other occupational groups, and suggested that some of the earnings difference might be due to the considerable responsibility associated with professional and managerial jobs. This article takes a more in-depth look at the relationship between hours and earnings, with a focus on detailed occupations.

(This excerpt is from an article published in the October 1998 issue of the Monthly Labor Review.

Table 1 shows 1997 average weekly hours and the proportion of workers in each hours-worked category, by major occupational group.

Usual weekly hours of persons employed full time, by sex and major occupational group, 1997

Occupations

Men

Women

Total employed 

44

41

Executives, officials, and managers 

47

44

Sales occupations

46

42

Professional specialty occupations 

45

42

Management-related occupations

44

42

Transportation and material moving occupations 

46

43

Farming, forestry, and fishing occupations  

46

42

Precision production, craft, and repair occupations  

43

41

Technicians 

43

41

Machine operators, assemblers, and inspectors  

42

41

Administrative support occupations, including clerical

42

40

Service workers 

42

41

Handlers, equipment cleaners, helpers, and laborers

42

41

Also, Table 2 presents data for detailed occupations, ranked by the percent of workers within them who have a standard workweek.    First part of this table covers working hours by men in details, but it did not cover for women for all occupations.  Thus the following recreated table data covers only Men.

Usual weekly hours of persons employed full time, by sex(*Note Male only) and detailed occupation, 1997

 

Men

weekly hours

Clergy 

52

Physicians

52

Firefighting occupations 

51

Managers, food serving and lodging establishments 

50

Lawyers 

49

Managers, marketing, advertising, and public relations 

48

Sales workers, motor vehicles and boats 

49

Financial managers 

47

Securities and financial services sales occupations 

46

Supervisors and proprietors, sales occupations 

48

Farmworkers 

51

Insurance sales occupations 

46

Administrators, education and related fields 

47

Real estate sales occupations 

47

Other financial officers 

45

Taxi cab drivers and chauffeurs 

48

Tool and die makers 

46

Sales representatives, mining, manufacturing, and wholesale trade 

46

Supervisors, mechanics and repairers 

46

Managers, service organizations, 

46

Teachers, college and university 

47

Extractive occupations 

51

Truck drivers 

47

Industrial engineers 

45

Teachers, secondary school 

45

Sales occupations, other business services 

44

Supervisors, production occupations 

45

Operations and systems researchers and analysts 

44

Accountants and auditors 

44

Sales workers, furniture, radio, TV, and appliances 

43

Computer systems analysts and scientists 

43

Teachers, elementary school 

44

Civil engineers 

43

Electrical and electronic engineers 

44

Designers 

43

Computer programmers 

43

Machinists 

43

Automobile mechanics 

43

Supervisors, administrative support occupations 

43

Production inspectors, checkers, and examiners 

43

Officials and administrators, public administration 

43

Supervisors, construction occupations 

44

Industrial machinery repairers 

43

Sales workers, other commodities 

42

Metalworking and plastic working machine operators 

42

Welders and cutters 

43

Mail carriers and postal clerks 

42

Construction trades 

42

Police and detectives, public service 

43

Electrical and electronic equipment repairers 

42

Cooks 

42

Engineering technologists and technicians 

42

Machine operators, assorted materials 

42

Industrial truck and tractor equipment operators 

42

Plumbers, pipefitters, and steamfitters 

42

Electricians 

42

Traffic, shipping, and receiving clerks 

42

Assemblers 

42

Guards and police, excluding public service 

42

Carpenters 

42

Construction laborers 

42

Laborers, except construction 

42

Janitors and cleaners 

41

Occupation
(Data Source- National Compensation Survey: Occupational Wages in the United States, June 2006 U.S. Department of Labor U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics)
http://www.bls.gov/ncs/ocs/sp/ncbl0910.pdf
Weekly earnings
mean Weekly Hours
Annual earnings mean Hours
All workers 40 2,017
Management occupations 41 2,092
Chief executives 44 2,303
General and operations managers 42 2,189
Advertising and promotions managers 40 2,070
Marketing and sales managers 41 2,136
Marketing managers 41 2,104
Sales managers 42 2,170
Public relations managers 40 2,054
Administrative services managers 40 2,075
Computer and information systems managers 40 2,095
Financial managers 40 2,093
Human resources managers 40 2,080
Compensation and benefits managers 41 2,115
Training and development managers 40 2,077
Industrial production managers 41 2,136
Purchasing managers 40 2,092
Transportation, storage, and distribution managers 41 2,108
Construction managers 41 2,133
Education administrators 39 1,935
Education administrators, preschool and child care center/program 41 2,079
Education administrators, elementary and secondary school 39 1,830
Education administrators, postsecondary 39 2,012
Engineering managers 41 2,115
Food service managers 44 2,210
Funeral directors 42 2,158
Lodging managers 43 2,244
Medical and health services managers 40 2,078
Natural sciences managers 40 2,080
Property, real estate, and community association managers 40 2,085
Social and community service managers 39 2,009
Business and financial operations occupations 40 2,076
Buyers and purchasing agents 40 2,101
Claims adjusters, appraisers, examiners, and investigators 39 2,029
Claims adjusters, examiners, and investigators 39 2,027
Insurance appraisers, auto damage 40 2,052
Compliance officers, except agriculture, construction, health and safety, and transportation 41 2,120
Cost estimators 41 2,110
Human resources, training, and labor relations specialists 40 2,027
Employment, recruitment, and placement specialists 39 2,047
Compensation, benefits, and job analysis specialists 40 2,079
Training and development specialists 40 1,966
Logisticians 40 2,078
Management analysts 40 2,084
Meeting and convention planners 39 2,050
Accountants and auditors 40 2,077
Appraisers and assessors of real estate 39 2,028
Budget analysts 41 2,121
Credit analysts 40 2,071
Financial analysts and advisors 40 2,076
Financial analysts 41 2,107
Personal financial advisors 40 2,062
Insurance underwriters 39 2,009
Financial examiners 40 2,077
Loan counselors and officers 40 2,083
Loan counselors 40 2,055
Loan officers 40 2,084
Tax examiners, collectors, preparers, and revenue agents 40 2,051
Tax examiners, collectors, and revenue agents 40 2,049
Computer and mathematical science occupations 40 2,084
Computer and information scientists, research 40 2,080
Computer programmers 40 2,084
Computer software engineers 40 2,102
Computer software engineers, applications 41 2,105
Computer software engineers, systems software 40 2,099
Computer support specialists 40 2,063
Computer systems analysts 40 2,080
Database administrators 40 2,081
Network and computer systems administrators 40 2,078
Network systems and data communications analysts 40 2,077
Actuaries 39 2,023
Operations research analysts 39 2,051
Statisticians 40 2,057
Miscellaneous mathematical scientists 40 2,069
Architecture and engineering occupations 40 2,094
Architects, except naval 41 2,121
Architects, except landscape and naval 41 2,123
Landscape architects 40 2,080
Surveyors, cartographers, and photogrammetrists 40 2,082
Cartographers and photogrammetrists 40 2,076
Surveyors 40 2,084
Engineers 41 2,105
Aerospace engineers 40 2,083
Chemical engineers 40 2,086
Civil engineers 41 2,124
Computer hardware engineers 41 2,154
Electrical and electronics engineers 41 2,111
Electrical engineers 41 2,111
Electronics engineers, except computer 41 2,112
Environmental engineers 40 2,061
Industrial engineers, including health and safety 41 2,120
Health and safety engineers, except mining safety engineers and inspectors 41 2,105
Industrial engineers 41 2,123
Marine engineers and naval architects 40 2,080
Materials engineers 41 2,111
Mechanical engineers 41 2,118
Nuclear engineers 40 2,080
Petroleum engineers 40 2,063
Drafters 40 2,073
Architectural and civil drafters 40 2,080
Electrical and electronics drafters 40 2,080
Mechanical drafters 40 2,080
Engineering technicians, except drafters 40 2,074
Aerospace engineering and operations technicians 40 2,089
Civil engineering technicians 40 2,069
Electrical and electronic engineering technicians 40 2,080
Electro-mechanical technicians 40 2,094
Environmental engineering technicians 40 2,042
Industrial engineering technicians 40 2,085
Mechanical engineering technicians 40 2,077
Surveying and mapping technicians 40 2,073
Life, physical, and social science occupations 40 2,032
Life scientists 39 2,035
Agricultural and food scientists 40 2,019
Animal scientists 39 2,040
Food scientists and technologists 39 2,035
Soil and plant scientists 40 2,007
Biological scientists 39 2,008
Biochemists and biophysicists 38 1,973
Microbiologists 40 2,062
Zoologists and wildlife biologists 39 2,034
Conservation scientists and foresters 40 2,088
Conservation scientists 40 2,078
Foresters 40 2,102
Medical scientists 40 2,059
Physical scientists 40 2,080
Astronomers and physicists 40 2,067
Physicists 40 2,065
Chemists and materials scientists 40 2,084
Chemists 40 2,085
Materials scientists 40 2,080
Environmental scientists and geoscientists 41 2,107
Environmental scientists and specialists, including health 41 2,111
Geoscientists, except hydrologists and geographers 41 2,096
Hydrologists 40 2,080
Economists 41 2,152
Market and survey researchers 41 2,123
Market research analysts 41 2,123
Psychologists 38 1,680
Clinical, counseling, and school psychologists 37 1,649
Sociologists 39 1,998
Urban and regional planners 40 2,060
Miscellaneous social scientists and related workers 39 2,038
Agricultural and food science technicians 40 2,072
Biological technicians 40 2,056
Chemical technicians 40 2,065
Geological and petroleum technicians 40 2,080
Nuclear technicians 40 2,080
Social science research assistants 40 2,047
Miscellaneous life, physical, and social science technicians 40 2,037
Environmental science and protection technicians, including health 40 2,076
Community and social services occupations 39 1,964
Counselors 38 1,834
Substance abuse and behavioral disorder counselors 39 2,011
Educational, vocational, and school counselors 38 1,675
Marriage and family therapists 39 2,040
Mental health counselors 40 2,048
Rehabilitation counselors 39 2,031
Social workers 39 2,002
Child, family, and school social workers 39 1,958
Medical and public health social workers 39 2,016
Mental health and substance abuse social workers 39 2,039
Miscellaneous community and social service specialists 39 2,015
Health educators 40 2,070
Probation officers and correctional treatment specialists 39 2,040
Social and human service assistants 39 2,006
Clergy 48 2,504
Directors, religious activities and education 38 1,996
Legal occupations 40 2,096
Lawyers 41 2,141
Judges, magistrates, and other judicial workers 40 2,054
Judges, magistrate judges, and magistrates 40 2,067
Paralegals and legal assistants 39 2,046
Miscellaneous legal support workers 40 2,049
Court reporters 37 1,901
Law clerks 39 2,017
Title examiners, abstractors, and searchers 41 2,116
Education, training, and library occupations 37 1,488
Postsecondary teachers 39 1,616
Business teachers, postsecondary 39 1,488
Math and computer teachers, postsecondary 39 1,552
Computer science teachers, postsecondary 39 1,630
Mathematical science teachers, postsecondary 39 1,502
Engineering and architecture teachers, postsecondary 40 1,565
Engineering teachers, postsecondary 40 1,579
Life sciences teachers, postsecondary 44 2,006
Biological science teachers, postsecondary 45 2,048
Physical sciences teachers, postsecondary 40 1,537
Atmospheric, earth, marine, and space sciences teachers, postsecondary 39 1,548
Chemistry teachers, postsecondary 41 1,554
Physics teachers, postsecondary 38.3 1,489
Social sciences teachers, postsecondary 40 1,601
Anthropology and archeology teachers, postsecondary 40 1,590
Area, ethnic, and cultural studies teachers, postsecondary 40 1,651
Economics teachers, postsecondary 45 1,711
Political science teachers, postsecondary 39 1,642
Psychology teachers, postsecondary 39 1,558
Sociology teachers, postsecondary 39 1,592
Health teachers, postsecondary 40 1,802
Health specialties teachers, postsecondary 40 1,820
Nursing instructors and teachers, postsecondary 39 1,730
Education and library science teachers, postsecondary 39 1,531
Education teachers, postsecondary 39 1,519
Law, criminal justice, and social work teachers, postsecondary 38 1,556
Law teachers, postsecondary 38 1,535
Arts, communications, and humanities teachers, postsecondary 39 1,504
Art, drama, and music teachers, postsecondary 38 1,457
Communications teachers, postsecondary 39 1,503
English language and literature teachers, postsecondary 38 1,534
Foreign language and literature teachers, postsecondary 40 1,549
History teachers, postsecondary 40 1,515
Philosophy and religion teachers, postsecondary 40 1,500
Miscellaneous postsecondary teachers 39 1,607
Recreation and fitness studies teachers, postsecondary 38 1,526
Vocational education teachers, postsecondary 39 1,740
Primary, secondary, and special education school teachers 37 1,428
Preschool and kindergarten teachers 38 1,675
Preschool teachers, except special education 38 1,762
Kindergarten teachers, except special education 38 1,493
Elementary and middle school teachers 37 1,395
Elementary school teachers, except special education 37 1,393
Middle school teachers, except special and vocational education 37 1,406
Secondary school teachers 37 1,420
Secondary school teachers, except special and vocational education 37 1,412
Vocational education teachers, secondary school 38 1,573
Special education teachers 36 1,394
Special education teachers, preschool, kindergarten, and elementary school 35 1,389
Special education teachers, middle school 37 1,428
Special education teachers, secondary school 36 1,390
Other teachers and instructors 36 1,471
Adult literacy, remedial education, and GED teachers and instructors 36 1,581
Self-enrichment education teachers 40 1,972
Archivists, curators, and museum technicians 38 1,989
Curators 38 1,993
Librarians 38 1,796
Library technicians 39 1,940
Farm and home management advisors 43 2,181
Instructional coordinators 38 1,914
Teacher assistants 37 1,513
Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media occupations 40 2,041
Artists and related workers 40 2,071
Art directors 40 2,099
Multi-media artists and animators 40 2,074
Designers 40 2,066
Commercial and industrial designers 40 2,085
Fashion designers 42 2,179
Floral designers 39 2,029
Graphic designers 40 2,065
Interior designers 39 2,040
Merchandise displayers and window trimmers 40 2,078
Set and exhibit designers 40 2,080
Actors, producers, and directors 40 2,088
Producers and directors 40 2,088
Athletes, coaches, umpires, and related workers 39 1,921
Coaches and scouts 39 1,892
Musicians, singers, and related workers 39 1,701
Musicians and singers 39 1,625
Announcers 40 2,078
Radio and television announcers 40 2,078
News analysts, reporters and correspondents 39 2,015
Reporters and correspondents 39 2,010
Public relations specialists 40 2,058
Writers and editors 40 2,045
Editors 39 2,039
Technical writers 40 2,081
Writers and authors 39 1,967
Miscellaneous media and communication workers 37 1,886
Interpreters and translators 32 1,663
Broadcast and sound engineering technicians and radio operators 41 2,107
Audio and video equipment technicians 40 2,056
Broadcast technicians 40 2,098
Sound engineering technicians 44 2,269
Photographers 40 1,976
Television, video, and motion picture camera operators and editors 40 2,080
Camera operators, television, video, and motion picture 40 2,080
Healthcare practitioner and technical occupations 39 2,032
Dentists 40 2,055
Dentists, general 40 2,052
Dietitians and nutritionists 40 2,069
Optometrists 38 1,957
Pharmacists 40 2,066
Physicians and surgeons 42 2,162
Anesthesiologists 43 2,209
Family and general practitioners 40 2,074
Internists, general 42 2,183
Pediatricians, general 41 2,136
Psychiatrists 36 1,886
Surgeons 39 2,009
Physician assistants 40 2,075
Registered nurses 39 2,009
Therapists 39 1,953
Audiologists 40 2,080
Occupational therapists 39 1,983
Physical therapists 39 2,004
Radiation therapists 39 2,047
Recreational therapists 39 2,047
Respiratory therapists 39 2,025
Speech-language pathologists 38 1,641
Veterinarians 40 2,080
Clinical laboratory technologists and technicians 40 2,070
Medical and clinical laboratory technologists 40 2,084
Medical and clinical laboratory technicians 40 2,061
Dental hygienists 35 1,800
Diagnostic related technologists and technicians 40 2,054
Cardiovascular technologists and technicians 39 2,035
Diagnostic medical sonographers 39 2,024
Nuclear medicine technologists 40 2,080
Radiologic technologists and technicians 40 2,059
Emergency medical technicians and paramedics 41 2,116
Health diagnosing and treating practitioner support technicians 39 2,039
Dietetic technicians 40 2,080
Pharmacy technicians 40 2,055
Psychiatric technicians 38 1,953
Respiratory therapy technicians 40 2,060
Surgical technologists 40 2,054
Veterinary technologists and technicians 40 2,060
Licensed practical and licensed vocational nurses 39 2,026
Medical records and health information technicians 40 2,057
Miscellaneous health technologists and technicians 40 2,065
Occupational health and safety specialists and technicians 40 2,087
Occupational health and safety specialists 40 2,089
Miscellaneous healthcare practitioner and technical workers 40 2,053
Athletic trainers 40 2,071
Healthcare support occupations 39 2,002
Nursing, psychiatric, and home health aides 39 2,009
Home health aides 37 1,932
Nursing aides, orderlies, and attendants 39 2,021
Psychiatric aides 39 2,049
Occupational therapist assistants and aides 40 2,007
Occupational therapist assistants 40 2,012
Occupational therapist aides 40 1,999
Physical therapist assistants and aides 40 2,050
Physical therapist assistants 40 2,068
Physical therapist aides 39 2,035
Massage therapists 38 1,999
Miscellaneous healthcare support occupations 38 1,987
Dental assistants 36 1,853
Medical assistants 39 2,033
Medical equipment preparers 39 2,047
Medical transcriptionists 39 2,035
Pharmacy aides 38 1,971
Veterinary assistants and laboratory animal caretakers 40 2,064
Protective service occupations 41 2,099
First-line supervisors/managers, law enforcement workers 40 2,078
First-line supervisors/managers of correctional officers 40 2,065
First-line supervisors/managers of police and detectives 40 2,082
First-line supervisors/managers of fire fighting and prevention workers 49 2,566
Fire fighters 48 2,504
Fire inspectors 40 2,079
Fire inspectors and investigators 40 2,079
Bailiffs, correctional officers, and jailers 40 2,069
Bailiffs 38 1,974
Correctional officers and jailers 40 2,073
Detectives and criminal investigators 40 2,060
Fish and game wardens 40 2,081
Parking enforcement workers 40 2,075
Police officers 40 2,076
Police and sheriff’s patrol officers 40 2,076
Animal control workers 39 2,028
Security guards and gaming surveillance officers 40 2,048
Security guards 40 2,048
Miscellaneous protective service workers 37 1,359
Lifeguards, ski patrol, and other recreational protective service workers 38 965
Food preparation and serving related occupations 38 1,954
First-line supervisors/managers, food preparation and serving workers 41 2,094
Chefs and head cooks 41 2,006
First-line supervisors/managers of food preparation and serving workers 42 2,107
Cooks 39 1,971
Cooks, fast food 38 1,968
Cooks, institution and cafeteria 38 1,884
Cooks, restaurant 39 2,003
Cooks, short order 39 2,020
Food preparation workers 38 1,916
Food service, tipped 37 1,899
Bartenders 37 1,896
Waiters and waitresses 37 1,890
Dining room and cafeteria attendants and bartender helpers 38 1,943
Fast food and counter workers 38 1,932
Combined food preparation and serving workers, including fast food 38 1,924
Counter attendants, cafeteria, food concession, and coffee shop 38 1,961
Food servers, nonrestaurant 39 1,978
Dishwashers 39 2,005
Hosts and hostesses, restaurant, lounge, and coffee shop 36 1,862
Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations 39 2,024
First-line supervisors/managers, building and grounds cleaning and maintenance workers 40 2,080
First-line supervisors/managers of housekeeping and janitorial workers 40 2,071
First-line supervisors/managers of landscaping, lawn service, and groundskeeping workers 41 2,103
Building cleaning workers 39 2,031
Janitors and cleaners, except maids and housekeeping cleaners 40 2,041
Maids and housekeeping cleaners 39 1,996
Pest control workers 40 2,050
Grounds maintenance workers 40 1,946
Landscaping and groundskeeping workers 40 1,941
Tree trimmers and pruners 37 1,870
Personal care and service occupations 38 1,914
First-line supervisors/managers of gaming workers 41 2,103
Gaming supervisors 41 2,120
Slot key persons 40 2,078
First-line supervisors/managers of personal service workers 40 1,957
Nonfarm animal caretakers 39 2,029
Gaming services workers 40 2,065
Gaming dealers 40 2,067
Gaming and sports book writers and runners 36 1,846
Ushers, lobby attendants, and ticket takers 40 2,054
Miscellaneous entertainment attendants and related workers 39 1,739
Amusement and recreation attendants 39 1,654
Locker room, coatroom, and dressing room attendants 39 2,012
Barbers and cosmetologists 37 1,940
Hairdressers, hairstylists, and cosmetologists 37 1,945
Miscellaneous personal appearance workers 39 2,000
Manicurists and pedicurists 38 1,991
Baggage porters, bellhops, and concierges 39 2,010
Baggage porters and bellhops 38 1,987
Concierges 40 2,054
Tour and travel guides 36 1,305
Tour guides and escorts 36 1,269
Transportation attendants 21 1,102
Flight attendants 19 996
Transportation attendants, except flight attendants and baggage porters 39 1,860
Child care workers 39 2,001
Personal and home care aides 39 2,027
Recreation and fitness workers 39 1,718
Fitness trainers and aerobics instructors 38 1,981
Recreation workers 40 1,668
Residential advisors 41 1,847
Sales and related occupations 40 2,079
First-line supervisors/managers, sales workers 42 2,159
First-line supervisors/managers of retail sales workers 42 2,162
First-line supervisors/managers of non-retail sales workers 41 2,148
Retail sales workers 40 2,058
Cashiers, all workers 39 2,031
Cashiers 39 2,028
Gaming change persons and booth cashiers 40 2,079
Counter and rental clerks and parts salespersons 40 2,090
Counter and rental clerks 40 2,071
Parts salespersons 41 2,107
Retail salespersons 40 2,069
Advertising sales agents 39 2,047
Insurance sales agents 40 2,062
Securities, commodities, and financial services sales agents 40 2,079
Travel agents 39 2,019
Sales representatives, wholesale and manufacturing 41 2,102
Sales representatives, wholesale and manufacturing, technical and scientific products 40 2,084
Sales representatives, wholesale and manufacturing, except technical and scientific products 41 2,109
Models, demonstrators, and product promoters 40 2,077
Demonstrators and product promoters 40 2,077
Real estate brokers and sales agents 40 2,076
Real estate brokers 41 2,154
Real estate sales agents 40 2,053
Sales engineers 41 2,132
Telemarketers 38 1,981
Miscellaneous sales and related workers 40 2,046
Door-to-door sales workers, news and street vendors, and related workers 40 2,080
Office and administrative support occupations 39 2,042
First-line supervisors/managers of office and administrative support workers 40 2,061
Switchboard operators, including answering service 39 2,039
Telephone operators 39 2,017
Financial clerks 40 2,054
Bill and account collectors 40 2,067
Billing and posting clerks and machine operators 40 2,054
Bookkeeping, accounting, and auditing clerks 39 2,048
Payroll and timekeeping clerks 40 2,064
Procurement clerks 40 2,068
Tellers 40 2,062
Brokerage clerks 39 2,028
Correspondence clerks 40 2,073
Court, municipal, and license clerks 39 1,984
Credit authorizers, checkers, and clerks 40 2,056
Customer service representatives 40 2,062
Eligibility interviewers, government programs 39 2,022
File clerks 39 2,047
Hotel, motel, and resort desk clerks 39 2,025
Interviewers, except eligibility and loan 39 2,035
Library assistants, clerical 38 1,771
Loan interviewers and clerks 40 2,063
New accounts clerks 40 2,066
Order clerks 40 2,072
Human resources assistants, except payroll and timekeeping 40 2,062
Receptionists and information clerks 39 2,043
Reservation and transportation ticket agents and travel clerks 39 2,044
Cargo and freight agents 40 2,079
Couriers and messengers 38 1,992
Dispatchers 40 2,096
Police, fire, and ambulance dispatchers 40 2,075
Dispatchers, except police, fire, and ambulance 41 2,106
Meter readers, utilities 40 2,079
Production, planning, and expediting clerks 40 2,079
Shipping, receiving, and traffic clerks 40 2,075
Stock clerks and order fillers 40 2,067
Weighers, measurers, checkers, and samplers, recordkeeping 40 2,079
Secretaries and administrative assistants 39 2,011
Executive secretaries and administrative assistants 40 2,049
Legal secretaries 39 2,001
Medical secretaries 39 2,030
Secretaries, except legal, medical, and executive 39 1,982
Computer operators 40 2,056
Data entry and information processing workers 39 2,014
Data entry keyers 39 2,021
Word processors and typists 39 1,999
Desktop publishers 38 1,996
Insurance claims and policy processing clerks 39 2,033
Mail clerks and mail machine operators, except postal service 39 2,045
Office clerks, general 39 2,028
Office machine operators, except computer 40 2,045
Proofreaders and copy markers 40 2,080
Statistical assistants 39 2,031
Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations 40 1,862
First-line supervisors/managers of farming, fishing, and forestry workers 41 2,145
Graders and sorters, agricultural products 39 1,996
Miscellaneous agricultural workers 40 1,724
Farmworkers and laborers, crop, nursery, and greenhouse 40 1,568
Farmworkers, farm and ranch animals 40 2,079
Logging workers 40 2,080
Logging equipment operators 40 2,080
Construction and extraction occupations 40 2,041
First-line supervisors/managers of construction trades and extraction workers 41 2,105
Boilermakers 40 2,078
Brickmasons, blockmasons, and stonemasons 40 1,997
Brickmasons and blockmasons 40 1,993
Carpenters 40 2,039
Carpet, floor, and tile installers and finishers 40 2,054
Carpet installers 40 2,080
Tile and marble setters 40 2,051
Cement masons, concrete finishers, and terrazzo workers 40 2,025
Cement masons and concrete finishers 40 2,024
Construction laborers 40 1,996
Construction equipment operators 40 1,988
Paving, surfacing, and tamping equipment operators 40 1,920
Operating engineers and other construction equipment operators 40 2,011
Drywall installers, ceiling tile installers, and tapers 40 2,069
Drywall and ceiling tile installers 40 2,069
Tapers 40 2,068
Electricians 40 2,069
Glaziers 40 2,080
Insulation workers 40 2,080
Insulation workers, floor, ceiling, and wall 40 2,080
Insulation workers, mechanical 40 2,080
Painters and paperhangers 40 2,040
Painters, construction and maintenance 40 2,040
Pipelayers, plumbers, pipefitters, and steamfitters 40 2,069
Pipelayers 40 2,071
Plumbers, pipefitters, and steamfitters 40 2,069
Plasterers and stucco masons 40 2,060
Reinforcing iron and rebar workers 40 2,051
Roofers 40 1,912
Sheet metal workers 39 2,020
Structural iron and steel workers 40 2,077
Helpers, construction trades 40 2,035
Helpers–brickmasons, blockmasons, stonemasons, and tile and marble setters 40 2,002
Helpers–carpenters 40 2,078
Helpers–electricians 40 2,078
Helpers–painters, paperhangers, plasterers, and stucco masons 40 2,080
Helpers–pipelayers, plumbers, pipefitters, and steamfitters 40 2,080
Helpers–roofers 40 1,985
Construction and building inspectors 40 2,056
Elevator installers and repairers 40 2,080
Hazardous materials removal workers 40 2,029
Highway maintenance workers 40 1,997
Rail-track laying and maintenance equipment operators 40 2,080
Septic tank servicers and sewer pipe cleaners 44 2,266
Miscellaneous construction and related workers 40 2,047
Derrick, rotary drill, and service unit operators, oil, gas, and mining 40 2,080
Service unit operators, oil, gas, and mining 40 2,080
Earth drillers, except oil and gas 40 2,080
Mining machine operators 40 2,078
Mine cutting and channeling machine operators 40 2,071
Roustabouts, oil and gas 40 2,080
Helpers–extraction workers 40 2,080
Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations 40 2,082
First-line supervisors/managers of mechanics, installers, and repairers 41 2,123
Computer, automated teller, and office machine repairers 40 2,075
Radio and telecommunications equipment installers and repairers 40 2,079
Telecommunications equipment installers and repairers, except line installers 40 2,079
Miscellaneous electrical and electronic equipment mechanics, installers, and repairers 40 2,080
Electric motor, power tool, and related repairers 40 2,080
Electrical and electronics installers and repairers, transportation equipment 40 2,080
Electrical and electronics repairers, commercial and industrial equipment 40 2,077
Electrical and electronics repairers, powerhouse, substation, and relay 40 2,080
Electronic equipment installers and repairers, motor vehicles 40 2,096
Electronic home entertainment equipment installers and repairers 40 2,080
Security and fire alarm systems installers 40 2,076
Aircraft mechanics and service technicians 40 2,081
Automotive technicians and repairers 40 2,101
Automotive body and related repairers 41 2,104
Automotive glass installers and repairers 40 2,080
Automotive service technicians and mechanics 40 2,101
Bus and truck mechanics and diesel engine specialists 40 2,084
Heavy vehicle and mobile equipment service technicians and mechanics 40 2,097
Farm equipment mechanics 42 2,166
Mobile heavy equipment mechanics, except engines 40 2,078
Rail car repairers 40 2,080
Small engine mechanics 40 2,053
Motorboat mechanics 40 2,011
Motorcycle mechanics 40 2,048
Outdoor power equipment and other small engine mechanics 40 2,080
Miscellaneous vehicle and mobile equipment mechanic, installers, and repairers 40 2,070
Tire repairers and changers 40 2,068
Control and valve installers and repairers 40 2,076
Control and valve installers and repairers, except mechanical door 40 2,075
Heating, air conditioning, and refrigeration mechanics and installers 40 2,087
Home appliance repairers 41 2,105
Industrial machinery installation, repair, and maintenance workers 40 2,069
Industrial machinery mechanics 40 2,071
Maintenance and repair workers, general 40 2,064
Maintenance workers, machinery 40 2,076
Millwrights 40 2,078
Refractory materials repairers, except brickmasons 40 2,080
Line installers and repairers 40 2,075
Electrical power-line installers and repairers 40 2,080
Telecommunications line installers and repairers 40 2,072
Precision instrument and equipment repairers 40 2,076
Medical equipment repairers 40 2,080
Miscellaneous installation, maintenance, and repair workers 40 2,049
Coin, vending, and amusement machine servicers and repairers 40 2,066
Locksmiths and safe repairers 40 2,084
Manufactured building and mobile home installers 40 2,080
Riggers 40 2,080
Signal and track switch repairers 40 2,080
Helpers–installation, maintenance, and repair workers 40 2,034
Production occupations 40 2,068
First-line supervisors/managers of production and operating workers 41 2,111
Aircraft structure, surfaces, rigging, and systems assemblers 40 2,079
Electrical, electronics, and electromechanical assemblers 40 2,073
Coil winders, tapers, and finishers 39 2,042
Electrical and electronic equipment assemblers 40 2,076
Electromechanical equipment assemblers 40 2,074
Engine and other machine assemblers 40 2,076
Structural metal fabricators and fitters 40 2,061
Miscellaneous assemblers and fabricators 40 2,072
Fiberglass laminators and fabricators 40 2,080
Team assemblers 40 2,068
Bakers 39 2,024
Butchers and other meat, poultry, and fish processing workers 40 2,055
Butchers and meat cutters 39 2,034
Meat, poultry, and fish cutters and trimmers 40 2,065
Slaughterers and meat packers 40 2,074
Miscellaneous food processing workers 40 2,070
Food and tobacco roasting, baking, and drying machine operators and tenders 40 2,080
Food batchmakers 40 2,063
Food cooking machine operators and tenders 40 2,076
Computer control programmers and operators 40 2,086
Computer-controlled machine tool operators, metal and plastic 40 2,087
Numerical tool and process control programmers 40 2,085
Forming machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic 40 2,059
Extruding and drawing machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic 40 2,055
Forging machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic 40 2,068
Rolling machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic 40 2,062
Machine tool cutting setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic 40 2,075
Cutting, punching, and press machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic 40 2,074
Drilling and boring machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic 40 2,074
Grinding, lapping, polishing, and buffing machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic 40 2,077
Lathe and turning machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic 40 2,079
Milling and planing machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic 40 2,078
Machinists 40 2,077
Metal furnace and kiln operators and tenders 40 2,073
Metal-refining furnace operators and tenders 40 2,079
Pourers and casters, metal 40 2,061
Model makers and patternmakers, metal and plastic 40 2,071
Model makers, metal and plastic 40 2,070
Patternmakers, metal and plastic 40 2,075
Molders and molding machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic 40 2,069
Foundry mold and coremakers 40 2,080
Molding, coremaking, and casting machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic 40 2,068
Multiple machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic 40 2,062
Tool and die makers 40 2,076
Welding, soldering, and brazing workers 40 2,074
Welders, cutters, solderers, and brazers 40 2,077
Welding, soldering, and brazing machine setters, operators, and tenders 40 2,053
Miscellaneous metalworkers and plastic workers 40 2,078
Heat treating equipment setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic 40 2,072
Lay-out workers, metal and plastic 40 2,080
Plating and coating machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic 40 2,068
Tool grinders, filers, and sharpeners 40 2,086
Bookbinders and bindery workers 39 2,025
Bindery workers 39 2,028
Printers 40 2,059
Job printers 39 2,033
Prepress technicians and workers 40 2,055
Printing machine operators 40 2,065
Laundry and dry-cleaning workers 39 2,048
Pressers, textile, garment, and related materials 39 2,022
Sewing machine operators 40 2,052
Tailors, dressmakers, and sewers 38 1,968
Sewers, hand 40 2,080
Tailors, dressmakers, and custom sewers 38 1,958
Textile machine setters, operators, and tenders 40 2,058
Textile bleaching and dyeing machine operators and tenders 40 2,079
Textile cutting machine setters, operators, and tenders 39 2,024
Textile knitting and weaving machine setters, operators, and tenders 40 2,080
Textile winding, twisting, and drawing out machine setters, operators, and tenders 40 2,062
Miscellaneous textile, apparel, and furnishings workers 40 2,064
Extruding and forming machine setters, operators, and tenders, synthetic and glass fibers 39 2,047
Fabric and apparel patternmakers 39 2,011
Upholsterers 40 2,072
Cabinetmakers and bench carpenters 40 2,071
Furniture finishers 40 2,080
Model makers and patternmakers, wood 40 2,080
Woodworking machine setters, operators, and tenders 40 2,072
Sawing machine setters, operators, and tenders, wood 40 2,068
Woodworking machine setters, operators, and tenders, except sawing 40 2,075
Power plant operators, distributors, and dispatchers 40 2,079
Nuclear power reactor operators 40 2,080
Power distributors and dispatchers 40 2,088
Power plant operators 40 2,077
Stationary engineers and boiler operators 40 2,052
Water and liquid waste treatment plant and system operators 40 2,079
Miscellaneous plant and system operators 40 2,062
Chemical plant and system operators 39 2,029
Gas plant operators 40 2,080
Petroleum pump system operators, refinery operators, and gaugers 40 2,078
Chemical processing machine setters, operators, and tenders 40 2,074
Chemical equipment operators and tenders 40 2,070
Separating, filtering, clarifying, precipitating, and still machine setters, operators, and tenders 40 2,078
Crushing, grinding, polishing, mixing, and blending workers 40 2,050
Crushing, grinding, and polishing machine setters, operators, and tenders 40 2,056
Grinding and polishing workers, hand 40 2,048
Mixing and blending machine setters, operators, and tenders 40 2,050
Cutting workers 40 2,041
Cutters and trimmers, hand 40 2,066
Cutting and slicing machine setters, operators, and tenders 40 2,033
Extruding, forming, pressing, and compacting machine setters, operators, and tenders 40 2,074
Furnace, kiln, oven, drier, and kettle operators and tenders 40 2,080
Inspectors, testers, sorters, samplers, and weighers 40 2,069
Medical, dental, and ophthalmic laboratory technicians 40 2,064
Dental laboratory technicians 39 2,047
Medical appliance technicians 40 2,080
Ophthalmic laboratory technicians 40 2,080
Packaging and filling machine operators and tenders 40 2,070
Painting workers 40 2,079
Coating, painting, and spraying machine setters, operators, and tenders 40 2,075
Painters, transportation equipment 40 2,091
Painting, coating, and decorating workers 40 2,075
Photographic process workers and processing machine operators 39 2,030
Photographic process workers 39 2,022
Photographic processing machine operators 39 2,036
Semiconductor processors 40 2,071
Miscellaneous production workers 40 2,063
Cementing and gluing machine operators and tenders 40 2,080
Cleaning, washing, and metal pickling equipment operators and tenders 40 2,080
Etchers and engravers 39 2,033
Molders, shapers, and casters, except metal and plastic 40 2,080
Paper goods machine setters, operators, and tenders 40 2,070
Tire builders 40 2,079
Helpers–production workers 40 2,061
Transportation and material moving occupations 40 2,066
First-line supervisors/managers of helpers, laborers, and material movers, hand 41 2,122
First-line supervisors/managers of transportation and material-moving machine and vehicle operators 41 2,152
Aircraft pilots and flight engineers 25 1,270
Airline pilots, copilots, and flight engineers 22 1,161
Ambulance drivers and attendants, except emergency medical technicians 40 2,080
Bus drivers 37 1,740
Bus drivers, transit and intercity 40 2,068
Bus drivers, school 33 1,325
Driver/sales workers and truck drivers 41 2,138
Driver/sales workers 41 2,108
Truck drivers, heavy and tractor-trailer 42 2,177
Truck drivers, light or delivery services 40 2,070
Taxi drivers and chauffeurs 39 1,998
Locomotive engineers and operators 42 2,167
Locomotive engineers 43 2,216
Railroad brake, signal, and switch operators 40 2,080
Subway and streetcar operators 40 2,080
Sailors and marine oilers 44 2,181
Ship and boat captains and operators 49 2,329
Captains, mates, and pilots of water vessels 49 2,329
Ship engineers 44 1,963
Bridge and lock tenders 40 2,079
Parking lot attendants 39 2,037
Service station attendants 40 2,066
Transportation inspectors 39 2,046
Conveyor operators and tenders 40 2,080
Crane and tower operators 40 2,075
Dredge, excavating, and loading machine operators 40 2,039
Excavating and loading machine and dragline operators 40 2,038
Hoist and winch operators 40 2,072
Industrial truck and tractor operators 40 2,064
Laborers and material movers, hand 40 2,052
Cleaners of vehicles and equipment 40 2,074
Laborers and freight, stock, and material movers, hand 40 2,048
Machine feeders and offbearers 40 2,066
Packers and packagers, hand 40 2,046
Pumping station operators 40 2,045
Refuse and recyclable material collectors 42 2,192
Tank car, truck, and ship loaders 42 2,081
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